Four Chaplains Day: A Day of Faith, Sacrifice and Service

By Rick Chromey | February 3, 2023 |

It’s a day the U.S. military has celebrated since 1951, but the tale has grown dusty and dark with time.

February 3 is “Four Chaplains Day.”

Never heard of it? You should. It’s a fascinating story of courage, service and faith.

It’s the tale of the day the U.S.A.T. Dorchester–packed with over 900 men–was hit by a Nazi torpedo.

The surprise attack in the early morning hours of February 3, 1943, killed several soldiers and trapped dozens of others. The ship quickly began to sink in the icy waters off Greenland and very soon it was “every man for himself.” Chaos ensued as men prepared to survive or die in the north Atlantic Ocean. Lifeboats were deployed and many were filled, but not everyone got a seat.

Thankfully, two Coast Guard ships were in the area. They rushed to the Dorchester and began to pluck drowning soldiers from the frigid waters.

Meanwhile, on board the Dorchester, four chaplains–a Methodist minister, a Roman Catholic priest, a Dutch Reformed pastor and a Jewish Rabbi–consoled the panicked servicemen.

Their first job was to distribute life jackets, but eventually the supply ran out. That’s when these four chaplains took off their own life vests and gave them away.

When the chaplains had saved as many men as they could, eyewitnesses in the life boats observed how these four faith leaders (all lieutenants) linked arms, prayed, quoted Scripture and went down with the ship.

“Just before our ship went down, these chaplains took off their own life preservers and gave them to us,” shared Daniel O’Keefe, a 19-year old survivor. “They were standing on the deck praying hand in hand as our lifeboat drifted out of sight.”

William Bednar, another Dorchester survivor, recollected: “I could hear men crying, pleading, praying and swearing. I could also hear the chaplains preaching courage to the men. Their voices were probably the only things that kept me sane.”
Who were these courageous and heroic chaplains?

Lt. George L. Fox

George Fox signed up for duty soon after Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese on December 7, 1941. “I’ve got to go,” he told Isadora, his wife. “I know from experience what those boys are about to face. They need me.” He was 42 years old and it wasn’t Fox’s first time to serve his country.

A native of Lewistown, PA, Fox lied about his age in order to enlist in World War I. He was only 17 when he signed on, but served well as a medical assistant and ambulance driver.

After the war, Fox finished his education and got married. Sensing a calling to God’s Army as a clergyman, he attended and graduated from Illinois Wesleyan University and studied at Boston University School of Theology. On June 10, 1934, he was ordained as clergy for the Methodist church.

Fox began active duty as a military chaplain on Aug. 8, 1942.

Lt. Alexander D. Goode

Originally from Brooklyn, NY, Alexander Goode was a stellar scholar and standout athlete. In fact, as a child, he courageously doused a kitchen fire to save his family home. Naturally such heroics, natural intelligence and physical ability opened many doors of opportunity, but Goode’s dream was always to follow in the footsteps of his father and become a rabbi.

Consequently, following high school, Goode pursued his rabbinical education, attending Hebrew Union College in New York. After his ordination in 1937, he served at Temple Beth Israel in York, PA.. Goode later earned a Ph.D. at John Hopkins University in middle eastern languages. After Pearl Harbor, he enlisted as a chaplain in the Army Air Forces….and requested front line assignment.

According to Rabbi Philip S. Bernstein, only weeks after the Dorchester went down, “[Goode] believed that life would not be worth living in a world under Axis domination, and he was prepared to sacrifice even life itself for the cause of human freedom.”

He left behind a wife (Theresa) and preschool daughter (Rosalie).


Lt. Clark V. Poling

Clark V. Poling was a seven-generation Dutch Reformed clergyman. He was the youngest of the four chaplains, ordained into ministry as a man of the cloth in 1936.

At his ordination, his reverend father Daniel counseled Clark:“I do not wish for you a life of ease nor do I desire to see you free from suffering and heartache. Rather do I desire for you a life of real conflict against the forces of evil. Be true to your calling,” Prior to entering the military as a chaplain in World War 2, Poling served as minister for the First Dutch Reformed Church of Schenectady, NY.

Poling’s life is summarized in a wish he carried for his life: “Just that I shall do my duty and have the strength, courage, and understanding of men. Just pray that I shall be adequate.”


Lt. John P. Washington

John P. Washington came from Irish stock in New Jersey. Born into a large Roman Catholic family, Washington distinguished himself through his love of music. He sang in his church’s choir and played piano.

After high school, he attended and graduated from Seton Hall, before finishing his priesthood studies at Immaculate Conception Seminary in Darlington, NJ.

Once ordained, Washington served as an assistant priest at St. Stephen’s Church in Kearny, NJ. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, he enlisted in the Navy but was rejected for having bad vision. So he joined the Army in May 1942.


The Four Chaplains

These four army chaplains–a Roman Catholic priest, Jewish rabbi, Dutch Reformed pastor and Methodist clergyman–became fast friends at Camp Myles Standish. They soon learned their assignment to overseas duty would be on a former luxury liner named the USAT Dorchester.  On the night of February 3, 1943 this ship carried 902 servicemen, merchant seamen and civilian workers.

The U.S.A.T. Dorchester sank in 27 minutes. The chaplains had no chance of survival without life vests. Only 231 servicemen survived that tragedy in the icy North Atlantic Ocean. Sadly, 675 others died by either drowning or hypothermia. It was a horrific, terrible tragedy.

The four chaplains were each posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and Purple Heart. Congress also tried to award the Medal of Honor to these four chaplains but medal rules were strict and prohibitive. So instead they authorized a Special Medal for Heroism, first awarded by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1961.

A decade earlier, on Feb. 3, 1951, the Chapel of Four Chaplains in Philadelphia, PA was dedicated by President Harry S. Truman. To this day, Four Chaplains interfaith memorial services are held in the United States every February 3 to recognize military chaplains, their Callings and the sacrifice of these original four.

In 1998, the U.S. Congress also designated February 3 as “Four Chaplains Day.”

It’s now a day for all Americans to honor the bravery, service and sacrifice of our U.S. military chaplains, as well as commemorate the sacrifice and service of Lt. George L. Fox, Lt. Clark V. Poling, Lt. John P. Washington and Lt. Alexander D. Goode.
Pearl Harbor was a billed as “day that lived in infamy” but may we also never forget an “infamous night” in the North Atlantic when four chaplains–from four vastly different faiths–revealed the brotherhood of man through their sacrificial service.

Nazism: How Hitler Used Fascism and Eugenics to Transform 1930s Germany

By Rick Chromey | January 11, 2023 |

Few four-letter words spark more fear, insult and outrage than Nazi.

And well it should.

Nazism carries a boatload of baggage, even for generations that never experienced the Holocaust and fascism of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich.

“Nazi” is a nickname linked to a political ideology characterized by dictatorial rule, forcible suppression of opponents and harsh, even violent, control of a society. Make no mistake. Adolf Hitler was a bonafide fascist. And yet his “right wing” politics were remarkably married to progressive, socialistic and “left wing” ideologies.

Perhaps a little historical context will help.

The term “Nazi” is a German abbreviation for the National Socialist Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei).

Originally, Hitler wanted the word “socialist” removed from his party name but relented to appease the radical leftists he needed to get elected. The moderate middle is where most fascists launch their political careers. Hitler was no different. He was also the first to co-opt television in order to broadcast his political ideology. Thanks to the cover of German politicians and a state media in his hip pocket, Hitler and his Nazi party could hide their sins, foil opposition and push an increasingly radical and destructive dogma.

Ultimately, it wasn’t about improving Germany but controlling Germany.

The Nazi Party wanted to reimagine the nation through a message of hope and change.

Maybe that’s why Hitler’s first act as Chancellor of Germany was to institute socialized health care (1933). Initially, this benign and benevolent legislation was appreciated by the German people. Who wouldn’t want affordable health care? However, hindsight proved a devil in the details. There’s nothing “affordable” about socialized medicine.

Few knew Hitler’s ultimate goal was a “master race.” All other races were genetically inferior and socially unnecessary.

Adolf Hitler was a charismatic communicator.

His speeches generated enthusiasm and his messages on German nationalism inspired patriotism that eventually produced fanaticism. The irony? Germany had been the heart of intellectual, scientific and religious exploration for four centuries. Some of the world’s best thinkers were German. It was, after all, where Protestant Christianity started. And yet these Germans were all slowly seduced by the lie.

At the heart of Hitler’s delusion was German socialism.

Government was the answer to every problem.

Consequently, as socialized health care normalized the German people, it conditioned them towards a more sinister and deadly reality. Since socialized health care (for all Germans) was an expensive venture, it proved fiscally prudent to eliminate those German people who weren’t pulling their weight.

The first targets were the disabled, elderly, incurable, insane and demented, most of whom were already under institutional state care.

Hitler’s Nazi party utilized the guise of social engineering to exterminate the unnecessary. The oldest Germans were particularly costly, however individuals with chronic disease, or mentally off the rails or crippled were also expensive eyesores.

The “merciful” solution was to kill them for the good of all Germany.

Consequently Hitler’s Nazi Party systematically eliminated anyone labeled as “lebensunwertes leben” or “life unworthy of life.”

Naturally these fascist state-led murders caught the attention of the German Lutheran and Catholic churches, who vehemently denounced such atrocities. However, by then, it was too late. Modern Germans weren’t as “religious” as their forefathers. Liberal Christianity originated in Germany through the work of Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834). By the early 20th century, liberalism had decimated the German Church and left a wake of apathy, agnosticism and atheism.

The German people were easy pickings because they no longer had a moral compass.

Consequently, once able-bodied Germans were conditioned to “merciful” euthanasia, Hitler moved to other social “undesirables”: beggars, criminals, homosexuals and homeless. These groups were either executed or sterilized (to prevent further reproduction). As the weak and undesirable were eliminated, the average white, healthy, younger, working German grew in prominence and political clout. This reality made it easy for Hitler to further apply Nazi eugenics and euthanasia to non-German ethnicities: Jews, blacks, Slavs and gypsies.

The rise of a new Aryan master race transformed Germany.

Adolf Hitler and the Nazis got many of their ideas from America.

In the early 20th century, a eugenics movement emerged in the United States that wanted to socially engineer a perfect human race. Influenced by Darwinian evolution, scientific progress and a desire to curb the “undesirable” immigration of Italians and Jews, American eugenicists felt they should manipulate who could reproduce.

American eugenicists focused initially on the blind, deaf, diseased, insane and poor. However, they also felt “dumb” people were equally a problem.

In 1927, a legal case made its way through the courts involving an 18-year-old Carrie Buck (with a mental age of nine). She was the offspring of an equally “feeble minded” 52-year-old mother.[i] The eugenicists wanted to sterilize Carrie (who already had an illegitimate child). Once committed to a state agency, Carrie was deemed unfit and scheduled for sterilization. The prosecution argued this action was inhumane and unethical.

The U.S. Supreme Court eventually heard the case of Buck v. Bell in 1927—and surprisingly ruled in favor of the eugenicists “for the protection and health of the state.” Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. famously quipped in his opinion on the case: “Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”[ii]

One of America’s most influential eugenicists was none other than Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood.

Today abortionists try to distance the pioneer from their pro-choice cause. Some even say Sanger was only loosely affiliated with the eugenics movement in order to politically strengthen her personal agenda. Regardless of her involvement, it’s clear where Sanger stood. She once penned that eugenics, including “planned parenthood” through birth control, was “the process of weeding out the unfit [and] of preventing the birth of defectives.”[iii] The problem is who defines the word “defective?” It’s why Hitler’s application of that word was far different from Sanger’s.

It was eugenicists like Sanger that caught and captivated Hitler’s attention.

In his desire to create a “master race,” forced sterilization and mercy killings proved perfect tools.

Ironically, Hitler’s rise to power was not without the help of strange bedfellows. His far-right fascism was aided by the “Brownshirts”–a violent protest group composed of radical leftists and homosexuals. However, once these Brownshirts were no longer useful to Hitler, they too were eliminated in what became the hellish “Night of the Long Knives” (June 30 – July 2, 1934). Throughout the 1930s, the Nazi Party slowly suppressed all critical voices, eliminated all undesirables and squelched any political criticism.

German politics was eventually saddled to a one-horse party.

Once in complete power Nazis could rewrite the rules to insure their power. With complete control of the media, the German people were told only what Hitler and his Nazi party wanted them to know.

But Hitler still wasn’t done.

His next move? Disarm the German people.

With no way to resist Hitler’s forces nor politically fight for the right to defense, the Germans either complied or died.

Many younger Germans, now indoctrinated with Nazi ideologies through German political and educational institutions were willing to die for their furor. That’s when Adolf Hitler took his Nazi army on the road to spread his deadly gospel. He invaded and occupied other countries to further infect Nazism. It was Nazi aggression and occupation that sparked the second World War in Europe. Even in faraway America the Nazi party had affectionate devotees among German Americans.

Adolf Hitler duped the German church to serve his cause.

At first, he seemed sympathetic to Christianity, but once elected, Hitler turned hostile and imposed Nazi socialism upon the German Christians. He eventually embraced Islam as a better “religious” solution to eliminate opposition…inspiring Muslims to rally and fight for his Nazi cause.

But not everyone bent the knee.

A new brand of German Protestantism emerged to stand against Nazism.

It was known as the “Confessing Church.” No matter what the Nazis did, they could not intimidate nor manipulate these Protestant Christians. Two of the movement’s greatest leaders were Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Martin Niemoller. It was Niemoller who famously penned:

“In Germany they first came for the Communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn’t speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me and by that time no one was left to speak up.”[iv]

That’s the way fascism works. It’s why America needs freedom of speech, assembly and the press. It’s why the Second Amendment is critical to a free society. It’s why “cancel culture” and racist demagoguery, media suppression and “fake news,” unfair elections and illegal immigration, abortion and euthanasia are warning bells to greater tyranny. It’s why politicians who prefer to suppress opposing viewpoints and demonize the minor party, rather than work with them for the good of the whole nation, should be noted and removed.

The story of Hitler and Nazism is not a unique moral tale.

It can happen again.




[i] “Buck v. Bell” (Wikipedia): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buck_v._Bell

[ii] “The Supreme Court Ruling That Led To 70,000 Forced Sterilizations,” NPR interview (March 7, 2016) with Andy Cohen, the author of Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American Eugenics, and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck. https://www.npr.org/2017/03/24/521360544/the-supreme-court-ruling-that-led-to-70-000-forced-sterilizations

[iii] “Fact Check: Was Planned Parenthood Started To ‘Control’ The Black Population?” by Amita Killy (August 14, 2015): https://www.npr.org/sections/itsallpolitics/2015/08/14/432080520/fact-check-was-planned-parenthood-started-to-control-the-black-population

[iv] Martin Niemoller, as quoted: https://www.nehm.org/the-holocaust/

“God Helps Those Who Helps Themselves”: The Eclectic Faith of Benjamin Franklin

By Rick Chromey | January 6, 2023 |

Benjamin Franklin was a scientist, patriot, politician, diplomat…and Deist. That’s a fact, say modern historians, based upon Franklin’s own words. He once wrote his skepticism of Christianity made him “a thorough Deist.”[i] Of course he wrote that conviction at the tender age of fifteen in a private journal…and never repeated it.

Deists reject the divinity of Jesus, miracles and biblical revelation.

As a result, many historians further extrapolate Franklin was agnostic. Still others frame Franklin’s religion as eclectic, self-styled and personal. Nevertheless, his Christian background was evident in his writings, values and statements. Could Franklin’s Deism be a youthful fancy…a temporary phase of his life?

What’s the truth?

First, Benjamin Franklin was more religious than most Americans today.

He was a product of the First Great Awakening (1730s – 1770s)–a religious revival in America and parts of Europe that was culturally transformative. The question in Franklin’s day wasn’t whether you believed in God or not, or even in Jesus, but rather what kind of Christian are you? The issue was denominationalism–schisms of Christianity–that divided Americans.

Raised Presbyterian, Franklin struggled with divisive denominationalism and his church’s rigid traditions that separated both Christians and Americans. Like most young people, he found his preacher’s sermons boring and lacking in moral principles. Consequently, Franklin avoided church services and reserved Sundays for personal Bible study.[ii] Later in life Franklin embraced Freemasonry—a fraternal organization that blends good works and God.

Nevertheless, Franklin remained marked by Christianity.

He gleaned much of his pithy wisdom from the Bible. His popular series Poor Richard’s Almanac (1732-1757) was packed with proverbs that sounded biblical. In 1747, as the “president” (governor) of Pennsylvania, Franklin proposed a fast and prayer day. He reminded Pennsylvanians of their “duty…to acknowledge their dependence on…Almighty God.” Franklin preached “…there is just reason to fear that unless we humble ourselves before the Lord [and] amend our Ways, we may be chastized with yet heavier Judgments.[iii]

In the mid-1750s, Franklin penned a recruitment pamphlet for Europeans intending to send their kids to America. Part of Franklin’s pitch was America’s colonial Christian culture. Franklin boasted how America had no adolescent misbehavior…because it was devoted to Faith and Christianity. He noted America was so Christianized that it was possible to grow old and never personally meet “either an Atheist or an Infidel.” Franklin extolled how America’s Christian culture produced “mutual forbearance and kindness” and a “remarkable prosperity” that brought “favor” to the nation.”[iv]

Benjamin Franklin’s America was a Christian America.

In a 1778 correspondence to France (widely known as secular and Deist) , Franklin practically bragged about “a Bible and a newspaper in every house, a good school in every district…the principal support of [America’s] virtue, morality and civil liberty.” Another time Ben remarked “Whosoever shall introduce into public affairs the principles of primitive Christianity will change the face of the world.”[v]

Essentially, Franklin saw America as a place where religion was prevalent, thoughtful, respected, and productive.

Whatever were his youthful Deist views regarding Jesus’ divinity, his affection for Jesus was undeniable. Franklin’s concluded, “As to Jesus of Nazareth…I think the system of morals and His religion as He left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see.[vi] In his 1789 autobiography, the elder Franklin outlined thirteen virtues that guided his life—including frugality, silence, temperance and cleanliness. His top virtue? Humility… which he noted needed to “imitate Jesus.”[vii]

Franklin also pursued various Christian disciplines like prayer, charity, and service.

He prayed daily, petitioning for Divine strength, wisdom and blessing upon his work. He declared he “was never without religious principles…never doubted…the existence of the Deity; that [God] made the world, and governed it by his Providence.” Franklin noted the importance of “doing good to man” and belief in both a final judgment and eternal life.[viii] Consequently, he was no agnostic and certainly no secularist. Franklin was firmly committed to a belief in Creator God and Jesus, as well as to His Providence and Governance of this world. He may have temporarily–as a young teenager–embraced Deism, but his later writings and statements betrayed that theological idea. Franklin also disagreed with the more irreligious writings of Thomas Paine.

Later in life, Benjamin Franklin gravitated back to church attendance.

Historian Carl Van Doren detailed Franklin’s latter church experiences and recorded how Franklin’s family owned a pew at the famed Christ Church (Episcopal) in Philadelphia, PA. It’s where Benjamin Franklin attended Sunday services with his family and witnessed the baptisms of  his two youngest children. Both his parents, his wife and Franklin himself are buried at Christ Church. He also financed clergy salaries, supported building programs, and helped with church accounting.[ix] These are hardly the acts and lifestyle of an agnostic or unbeliever.

Franklin described in his own Autobiography a longtime friendship with famed revivalist George Whitefield. In fact, Franklin faithfully attended Whitefield’s crusades and printed his sermons and journals.[x] Franklin was so impressed by Whitefield he financed an auditorium solely for his Philadelphia revivals…then later donated that space to launch the University of Pennsylvania.

Benjamin Franklin’s religion found flight during a fiery debate at the 1787 Constitutional Convention.

The issue was prayer…particularly the practice of prayer to guide the Constitutional Convention. Various factions of political thought had created a moment where there was question if a Constitution could be created to satisfy every state. At one point the aged Franklin rose and stated:

.. In the beginning of the contest with G. Britain, when we were sensible of danger we had daily prayer in this room for the Divine Protection. Our prayers, Sir, were heard, and they were graciously answered. All of us who were engaged in the struggle must have observed frequent instances of a Superintending providence in our favor. … And have we now forgotten that powerful friend? or do we imagine that we no longer need His assistance. I have lived, Sir, a long time and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth—that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? We have been assured, Sir, in the sacred writings that “except the Lord build they labor in vain that build it.” I firmly believe this; and I also believe that without his concurring aid we shall succeed in this political building no better than the Builders of Babel: … I therefore beg leave to move—that henceforth prayers imploring the assistance of Heaven, and its blessings on our deliberations, be held in this Assembly every morning before we proceed to business, and that one or more of the Clergy of this City be requested to officiate in that service.

None of this sounds like the rhetoric of an irreligious Deist or agnostic secularist.

Benjamin Franklin was never a faithless man.

He believed in God and, despite any Deist and Masonic dispositions, maintained deep appreciation for Christianity. Yes, he struggled with religious divisiveness, pomposity, and hypocrisy, but Franklin still valued how Christianity framed American culture. In elderhood Ben Franklin attended, to what degree we cannot say, a Christian church in Philadelphia and was eventually buried in that same church’s graveyard.

Maybe that why Benjamin Franklin’s faith is hard to define—particularly over 230 years after his passing. Perhaps spiritual ambiguity is exactly what Franklin preferred.

Regardless, like a lightning strike on a kite string, Franklin’s faith proved just as unpredictable, unique and, to a degree, shocking. For this Founding Father, religion and Christianity, in particular, remained a faithful friend to guide and guard his life.

Perhaps Benjamin Franklin’s faith story is best summarized in his famous proverb: “God helps those who help themselves.”




[i] The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (New York, NY: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1848): 97.

[ii] Benjamin Franklin by Carl Van Doren (New York, NY: The Viking Press, 1938): 131.

[iii] Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, PA: Theo. Fenn and Company Volume 5, 1851): 169. Accessed on Google Books.

[iv] The Works of Dr. Benjamin Franklin (New York: Frederick Campe and Company, 1835): 306. Accessed on Google Books.

[v] As quoted in George Bancroft, History of the United States, From the Discovery of the American Continent (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1866), Vol. IX, p. 492.

[vi] Benjamin Franklin, Works of Benjamin Franklin, John Bigelow, editor (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1904), p. 185, to Ezra Stiles, March 9, 1790.

[vii] Franklin added “and Socrates” as someone else to model.

[viii] Excerpted from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin: https://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111frank2.html

[ix] Van Doren, Franklin, 132.

[x] Autobiography of Franklin, 1848, 164-170.

[xi] Max Farrand, The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911), Vol. I, pp. 451-452, from James Madison’s Notes on the Convention for June 28, 1787.


Hark! The Herald Wesley Wrote: How a Christmas Hymn Transformed America

By Rick Chromey | December 19, 2022 |

In 1739 a young colonial Georgia preacher wrote a “Hymn for Christmas Day.”

His opening line was “Hark! how all the welkin rings.” Welkin is an old Dutch word for “heaven.”

The lyricist’s name? Charles Wesley.

In the late 1720s, he and his older brother John had founded a new form of Protestant Christianity known as “Methodism”–featuring a novel “method” for connecting people to God. Methodism became wildly popular at Oxford University when they were students.

It’s why, in 1735, the young Wesleys migrated to America to help lead a new colony known as “Georgia.”

The Wesley brothers came to pastor the colonists and preach to the Indians. Unfortunately, their high hopes were soon dashed. John’s efforts to evangelize the Indians fell flat. And fellow Georgia colonists despised the Wesleyan strict religiosity of “methodism.” After a year. the discouraged and defeated brothers returned to England.

That’s when they met Peter Boehler, a Moravian missionary soon headed for Georgia.

Boehler reignited the Wesleys’ spiritual fire, converting them to a new understanding of the indwelling Holy Spirit and Grace. John journaled about this “grace” he had never known: “I felt my heart strangely warmed.” Armed with this new theological perspective, the Wesley brothers decided to return to George to serve, pastor and teach again.

The Wesley brothers also loved contemporary music, including bar tunes.

They felt these modern secular tunes were the perfect vehicle for communicating Christian theology. Theology, after all, proved more memorable if sung. Consequently, the theologian Charles soon became a master lyricist. In his life he composed over 6500 hymns, including the Easter classic: “Christ the Lord is Risen Today.”

But it’s his composition “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” that most people–whether you’re a believer or not–still know and love.

And yet we only know it because a friend of the Wesleys–the famed Methodist evangelist George Whitefield–got involved. It was Whitefield who suggested Charles change that opening line from “Hark! how all the welkin rings” to “Hark! the herald angels sing.” And then to help the young lyricist, Whitefield included this Christmas song in his famous “Collection of Hymns for Social Worship” (1754).

That particular book became the primary hymnal of the First Great Awakening. During the mid-1700s a religious revival swept through Great Britain, America and other British colonies that transformed the religious landscape. Preaching and singing became central to Protestant worship services. Hymnals were as valued as Bibles in the church, thanks to Whitefield and Wesley.

In America, the influence of religious awakening reached the highest levels of government and culture.

Ben Franklin penned a mid-1750s recruitment pamphlet for Europeans intending to send their kids to America. Franklin boasted about our Christian colonial culture, claiming it had no adolescent misbehavior. Franklin further noted America was so Christianized that it was possible to grow old and never personally meet “either an Atheist or an Infidel.” He extolled how America’s Christian culture produced “mutual forbearance and kindness” and a “remarkable prosperity” that brought “favor” to the nation.” In 1778, Franklin wrote to the French there’s “a Bible and a newspaper in every house, a good school in every district…the principal support of [America’s] virtue, morality and civil liberty.”

And to think “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” helped to light that path.

But what about that beautiful tune? Originally Wesley envisioned a slow and somber melody. He even proposed the same tune as “Christ the Lord is Risen Today.” For a hundred years it’s impossible to know exactly what tune the lyrics employed. However, in the mid-1800s, W.H. Cummings adapted a Felix Mendelssohn cantata to perfectly fit “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing.” Mendelssohn’s original music was a secular ode to technology and Gutenberg’s printing press. In fact, if Cummings hadn’t adapted either Mendelssohn’s music and Wesley’s hymn, both probably would’ve been lost to history.

However, when the Mendelssohn music was matched to Wesley’s rich lyrics it created a new Christmas classic.

For many people, it’s their favorite Christmas hymn. It’s likely a song you’ll hum or sing sometime this week. You might be humming it right now.

Hark! The Herald Angels Sing. Glory to the newborn king. Peace on earth and mercy mild, God and sinner reconciled. Joyful all ye nations rise. Join the triumph in the skies. With angelic hosts proclaim: “Christ is born in Bethlehem.” Hark! The Herald Angels Sing: Glory to the newborn king!”

Christ, by highest heaven adored. Christ, the everlasting Lord. Late in time behold him come. Offspring of the Virgin’s womb. Veiled in flesh the Godhead see. Hail the incarnate Deity. Pleased with us in flesh to dwell, Jesus, our Immanuel. Hark! The Herald Angels Sing: Glory to the newborn king!”

Hail the heaven-born Prince of Peace! Hail the Sun of Righteousness! Light and life to all He brings. Risen with healing in His wings. Mild He lays His glory by. Born that man no more may die. Born to raise the sons of earth. Born to give them second birth. Hark! The herald angels sing: “Glory to the new-born king”

The Santa Chronicles: The Rise of Sinter Klass (Part 2)

By Rick Chromey | December 7, 2022 |
How did St. Nicholas become Santa Claus? It’s an important part of the real history of Santa Claus. In part 1, we investigated the humble beginnings of a devout bishop from southern Turkey known as Nicholas. His generous deeds were legendary. Now let’s dive into the European chapter that sets up the myths and legend we know today.

Muslim aggression into the Middle East and Asia Minor during the 11th century saved this story for us.

The tale of “St. Nick” should be as forgotten as most religious saints of that period. But it wasn’t. Nicholas’ remains were moved to Italy in 1087 AD to protect them from desecration by the invading Moors. This relocation spread his story of generosity and Faith to a new audience. There were already “midnight gift giving” traditions on the day of Nicholas’ death (December 6) in Asia Minor. Now western Europeans added “St. Nicholas Day” and his gift-giving tradition to their “saint days” holidays.

“St. Nicholas Day” (Dec 6) quickly became a popular European Christian holiday.

One legendary story reported how Nicholas left gold coins for people in their shoes (kept just inside the front door). It’s still a tradition in some countries for children to leave their shoes by the doors on Christmas Eve to be filled with gifts. For the rest of the world, the tradition preferred socks on the fireplace.
In the Middle Ages, especially after the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church divided in 1050 A.D., the “saints day” holidays began to lose their luster. Many western leaders wanted to refocus December celebrations on the “Christ Mass” (December 25). It’s why St. Francis of Assisi in 1223 AD creatively put together the first “Nativity” scene to visually explain the holy day.

However, it was the Protestant Reformation and Martin Luther in the 1500s the early 1500s that radically transformed St. Nicholas Day.

Like some in earlier Middle Ages Christianity, Protestant churches felt “saints days” removed the focus from Jesus. But there was a problem. The Germans loved the gift-giving aspect of St. Nicholas Day. And Germany was the heart and soul of the Lutheran Protestant Churches.
Consequently, the German Martin Luther fixed the problem by moving the Nicholas traditions (December 6) to Christmas (December 25). He felt Nicholas’ story better fit the gift of the Christ Child and gifts of the wisemen. Germans pronounced “Christ Child” as “Christkindl.” Therefore, the name Nicholas evolved into a new name for St. Nick: Kris Kringle. The Germans also introduced to the December 25  holiday the Christmas tree, advent calendars and wreaths.

In the Netherlands, Dutch Christians putting their own spin on the St. Nicholas story.

According to their end-time views and Revelation 19-20, the Dutch believed Jesus would return at the midnight hour…in judgment. He’d ride a white horse, with the saints of heaven following him. At that time, Jesus will subject mankind to a Day of Judgment to reward the righteous and punish the wicked. The righteous are preserved because their names were written in the Lamb’s Book of Life. Most Christians today believe this idea too.

But the Dutch Christians reimagined this biblical idea for St. Nickolas (or Sinter Klass).

The Dutch created an annual morality play to remind children (and all people) that Jesus was going to come (like St.Nick) at midnight to judge children according to his “Book of Naughty and Nice.” In this Dutch story mash-up, however, the angels in heaven are the elves at Santa’s workshop. The north star, because it’s a fixed point, is the North Pole, the home for Santa or, in Dutch: Sinter Klass. And because there weren’t many horses in the Arctic, Sinter Klass’ sleigh was pulled by reindeer.
But there’s an interesting and sordid twist on the Dutch “St. Nick” tradition. It’s that Sinter Class was accompanied by a Black Moor named Zwarte Piet. When Sinter Klass visited the “nice” children, they received treats and reward. However, when he came to the homes of “naughty” children , they were kidnapped and removed to Spain (by Zwarte Piet) in a gunny sack, then sold into Muslim slavery.
It’s why Dutch boys (who obviously were more “naughty”) slept with a pocket knife on Christmas Eve. It was their only way to escape from the sack of Zwarte Piet. But it’s also why Santa carries his toys in a large sack. As the “treats” were removed for the good children, it created room for the “naughty” ones to be whisked away to slavery. A bit creepy, I know, but that’s the reason. Thank you Dutch parents.

Thankfully, the English focused less on St. Nicholas gift-giving and more on the feasting of Christmas.

The Anglo-Saxon Christmas was about pleasure…particularly feasting on food. And nobody feasted better than King Henry VIII. During his reign the Christ Mass “holy day” devolved into a Mardi Gras that completely lost the reason for the season. The Twelve Days of Christmas were for hard partying, gambling, dancing, sexual promiscuity, drinking (wassail was a spiced beer) and getting into trouble. It still retained a gift-giving aspect (as the traditional carol “The Twelve Days of Christmas” indicates) but there was little to no religious factor.
This English holiday also separated the rich from the poor…a theme Charles Dickens framed in his story about Scrooge and Tiny Tim (“A Christmas Carol”). It’s a theme that a hundred years later will find a new twist in the 1947 Frank Capra movie “It’s a Wonderful Life.” If you don’t have wealth, you might as well be dead.

All this Anglo bawdiness, however, created a problem for a certain group of English Christians known as the Separatists  and Puritans.

When these religious parties migrated to “New England” to create a better society, their first order of business was to outlaw Christmas (as well as Halloween) in their new American home. In 1659, the Puritans levied a five shilling fine to anyone caught celebrating Christmas. Even though many old English Christmas traditions had been transported to their “New England” home, the Puritans weren’t going to let them root. On Christmas Day in 1712, the Rev. Cotton Mather preached there was no place for the English Christmas, any more than there was room for a Greek orgy or a Muslim holy day:

Can you in your conscience think, that our Holy Savior is honored by Mad Mirth, by long Eating, by hard Drinking, by lewd Gaming, by rude Reveling; by a Mass fit for none but a Saturn or a Bacchus, or the Night of a Mahometan (Muslim) Ramadan? You cannot possibly think so!
The Puritan ethic was strong in early America. Consequently, both Christmas and Halloween celebrations were suppressed until the mid-1800s. It would take other Europeans from different countries and traditions to breathe new life into both holidays. The Irish were primarily responsible for rescuing Halloween (a shortened Irish way to say “Hallowed Evening”) and the Dutch were the ones who kept Christmas alive in America.

America will eventually prove the great melting pot for all St. Nicholas (Kris Kringle, Sinter Klass) traditions.

However, a new American “Santa Claus” would emerge in the 1800s. And this new Kris Kringle was a marketing genius, Hollywood star and mall icon by the end of the 20th century. America was going to create its own spin on old St. Nick…and thanks to movies, radio television, cartoons, and Coca-Cola…it might be enough to make the original St. Nicholas roll over in his grave.



The Santa Chronicles: How A Man Named Nicholas became Santa Claus (Part 1)

By Rick Chromey | December 6, 2022 |

His name was Nikolaos or Nicholas…St. Nicholas in the Greek Orthodox tradition.

You and I know him better as “St. Nick.”

Around the world he has other names: Sinterklass (Dutch), Kris Kringle (English), Papa Noel (French/Spanish), Weihnachtsmann (German), Grandfather Frost (Russia)…and SANTA CLAUS.

Most of what we know about this “jolly old elf” and his relationship to Christmas is due to four significant influencers: Islamic jihadists, Martin Luther, the Dutch and Irving Berlin.

It’s quite a yuletide tale. And it all began on December 6, 343 A.D. That’s the day Nicholas died and his legend began. I’m going to tell his story in two parts and focus first on the man named NICK.

Nicholas was born into great wealth in Patara, Turkey (280 AD).

He survived the most brutal Christian persecution in history by the Roman Emperor Diocletian (284-305 AD). This tyrant ordered the arrest and death of Christian church leaders. He wanted all the “scriptures” destroyed and the homes (where churches met) torched. Many Christians who refused to recant had their tongues cut out and were burned alive. It was a terrible, gruesome time to be a Christian.

However, thanks to his parents wealth (which Nicholas inherited), he never lived in need.

Neverthelsess, his sensitive spirit opened him to the need of others.

He became particularly noted for his generosity to the poor.

Yet Nick never took credit. He always gave anonymously.

One day he learned of a desperate and bankrupt merchant who was going to lose everything, including his three daughters, to creditors. The merchant wanted to save his girls from being trafficked for sex by marrying them off…but he had no dowry money to pay a suitor’s family.

Nicholas caught wind of the merchant’s great need and, one night near the midnight hour, tossed a bag of money into each girl’s window for their dowry. According to lore, one bag landed in a sock that was drying by the fireplace. Have you ever noticed that older pawn shops often have three balls hung outside or built into their logo? It’s because of Nicholas and this story.

Nick is the patron saint of pawnbrokers who help people get past their hour of need through pawn loans.

After Nicholas died on 343 AD, and he was venerated as a “saint” in the Greek Orthodox faith, a tradition of “midnight gift-giving” (stuffing stockings with presents) emerged on the anniversary of his death (December 6). It’s a tradition that lasted over 1200 years.

Nicholas was also an important church leader.

He was a bishop in Myra, a significant port city in Asia Minor. Initially Nick didn’t want the job. Diocletian had targeted bishops for imprisonment and death. In fact, Nick, as he expected, was soon arrested and jailed, but thankfully a new emperor named Constantine rose to power and in 313 AD ended the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.

Once freed, the fiery Nicholas took on the pagan Roman culture.

He preached against adultery, homosexuality, prostitution and other sexual sin. His sermons created such a stir in Myra that they tore down an ancient temple to Diana (the fertility goddess). He helped end the Greek Olympics for their bawdy, pagan games…originally performed in the nude for the pleasure of the crowds. He spoke against murder, particularly the Roman practice of killing unwanted babies at birth.

Nicholas was among the bishops who convened at Nicea in 325 AD to deal with heresy.

Reportedly, Nick was so angry at Arian for his heretical view of Jesus that he slapped him! As a result, these church leaders produced the Nicene Creed (which remains a spoken tradition in Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches to this day).

Evidently the prayers of Nicholas were miraculous too.

He once prayed for an angry sea to calm…and it did. It’s why he’s known as the patron saint of sailors too. Another time he prayed that merchant ships might remain full of grain, even after they gave up large deposits for his famished people in Myra…and they did.

Nicholas died on December 6, 343 A.D.

Myra soon built a church to honor him.

Seven centuries after that Islamic jihadists invaded Asia Minor. Like Diocletian, they were brutal and barbaric, killing Christians, destroying churches and desecrating the graves of saints. To save Nicholas’ remains, the Myra Christians sent them to Bari, Italy for safe-keeping. In 1087 AD Pope Urban II named a church in Nicholas’ honor (Basilica di San Nicola de Bari).

The Muslim invasion was so bad that the Pope requested help from European kings to intervene.

It was the First Crusade and it eventually saved Europe from falling to Islam.

The story of St. Nicholas was kept alive in the Greek and Russian Orthodox traditions, but now that his remains were on European soil, the tales of his generosity and Faith began to spread into Italy, Spain, Germany, Holland and England.

The irony? If it wasn’t for the Muslim invasion and Nicholas’ remains being moved to Europe, we probably wouldn’t have a St. Nick tradition for Christmas. It’s a story that would’ve been lost to time.

But that didn’t happen. And the legend of St. Nick evolved into Europe over the next millennium to become the Santa Claus myth of today.

And that’s where we’ll pick up his story in PART TWO.

Pilgrims, the Mayflower and Squanto: The Real Story of Thanksgiving

By Rick Chromey | November 18, 2022 |


Pilgrim Thanksgiving


This week we celebrate Thanksgiving Day.

It’s a day we gather for turkey and dressing, sweet potatoes and pie. We’ll congregate with friends and family, watch football and hunt Black Friday specials. Most of us will share gratitude for something or someone.

But in 1621, the first Thanksgiving feast happened for none of those reasons.

Here’s the REAL story. The story that’s not shown on the History Channel, or displayed at the museum, or taught in school. In fact, for those under 45, few have learned what really happened with the pilgrims. In recent years, we’ve been taught a Thanksgiving history about how “noble-minded pioneers slaughtered Indians with little remorse, kept servants and slaves, and treated women no differently than cattle.”[i] But is that true?

Many Americans now believe Europeans originally settled America as part of a systematic “hostile takeover” of the native Indian (or indigenous people). They argue the “white man” stole the land from the Indian, then enslaved the African Black. But is that true?

Were the Pilgrims evil white Christian oppressors? Or have we been taught the wrong story?

To understand this tale we need to begin in 1603 when King James I ascended the English throne.

King James wanted a pure Anglican church and absolute obedience to civil authority. He drove dissident groups underground through imprisonment, fines and other persecution. In 1611, King James  “authorized” his own Anglican translation of the Bible. These actions created dissident groups known Separatists and Puritans. Initially, the Puritans wanted to “purify” the corruption in the Anglican church but still retain unity with their Anglican brothers. The Separatists were more radical. They completely separated from the Church of England altogether. In 1607, an entire church (known as the Scrooby congregation) illegally migrated to Holland to escape King James. This group of dissident Christians were eventually known as the “pilgrims.”

A tolerant Holland proved satisfying for these Christian pilgrims, but it was also more secular.

After a dozen years living among the Dutch, this Scrooby church noticed changes in their kids…and they weren’t good ones. Many believed it was time to move again. That’s when they heard about a new world called “America.” England was seeking immigrants to colonize the region that eventually would be called “New” England.

In September of 1620 these Dutch “pilgrims” set sail for America.

They initially set sail on the Speedwell but this ship proved leaky and unreliable. The Mayflower vessel, accompanying the Speedwell, was able to accompany only 102 of the Speedwell pilgrims. There were other non-separatists aboard, but the pilgrims were the majority. The 65 day voyage across the Atlantic was dangerous and life-threatening. Intense storms nearly tore the Mayflower ship apart, and tore off the central mast at one point.

One pilgrim named James Howland fell overboard and would’ve drown had he not (miraculously) found the trailing rope behind the Mayflower. Among Howland’s descendants are H.W., G.W. and Jeb Bush, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Henry Waldo Emerson and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Humphrey Bogart, and Joseph Smith, Jr.

On November 9, 1620 the Mayflower arrived in America.

Originally the pilgrims planned to settle in Jamestown, VA but a winter storm pushed them further north into Cape Cod in Massachusetts.

William Bradford led the group in a thanksgiving reading of Psalm 100: Shout for joy to the Lord, all the earth. Worship the Lord with gladness; come before him with joyful songs. Know that the Lord is God. It is he who made us, and we are his; we are his people, the sheep of his pasture. Enter his gates with thanksgiving and his courts with praise; give thanks to him and praise his name. For the Lord is good and his love endures forever; his faithfulness continues through all generations.

William Bradford emerged as a leader and pastor for the pilgrims in the new world.

He was barely 30 years old but already a respected leader among the pilgrims. He volunteered to explore the area with several other men, but first required an agreement to a basic government for their new colony. They authored a document titled “The Mayflower Compact.” The pilgrims knew settling in a different area than Jamestown could be perceived as defiance by King James. Consequently, they wrote out a simple constitution—the first for Americans—promising “all Submission and Obedience” to “King and country.”

They also stated their purpose was a Christian settlement “undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith.”

With the Compact signed, exploration parties commenced.

Initially, they found no people. The cold November winds were chilling, the New England land barren, rocky and hard to traverse. On their third exploration the men discovered an abandoned Indian village. It was the former fort of the Patuxet Indians and it was now a graveyard of skulls and bones. Between 1616 and 1619, a deadly plague killed off the entire tribe. The tragedy of the Patuxet would be fortunate for these pilgrims seeking a quick home. But that’s when the young Bradford faced his own tragedy. Upon his return to the Mayflower he learned his young wife had accidentally fallen into the cold Atlantic waters and drowned. It was the first of many misfortunes he’d face.

The abandoned Indian fort proved a Divine blessing for the pilgrims.

Winter was approaching fast, and the pilgrims needed food and shelter. By Christmas Day 1620 the settlers were rebuilding the old Indian fort. Unfortunately, starvation, freezing temperatures and sickness soon took its toll. At one point, Bradford collapsed from a sudden pain in his hip. Some feared he wouldn’t last the night, but he “miraculously” pulled through. Not everyone was that lucky. During March and February, two to three pilgrims died every day. By spring more than half the original 102 pilgrims were dead.

Many Puritans later thanked a hired soldier named Myles Standish for their survival of that first winter.

Standish not only nursed Bradford back to health, but many others too. He foraged for food, reinforced the fort and kept the dying pilgrim community alive. He’d also be William Bradford’s right hand man…and a gift from God. For Bradford everything was a matter of Divine Providence. God was controlling this venture…and blessing it. Even when the Mayflower headed back to England and the ship’s captain begged the starving pilgrims to return, but to a person they refused.

God had led them to America.

As for the neighboring Indians? Here’s the real story that’s not taught today.

In early spring 1621, this surviving band of pilgrims had their first meeting with a native.

His name was Samoset and he was part of the Wampanoag tribe. His chief Massasoit had sent him to meet the white settlers and, to their surprise, greeted them in English. The introduction grew into a friendship and eventually a mutual treaty to work together for the good of all. The pilgrims and Wampanoagagreed to help each other and, if necessary, fight together. It was an alliance that likely saved the pilgrims.

The reason Samoset could greet the pilgrims in their English tongue is due to another Indian named Tisquantum.

He was not a Wampanoag Indian. In fact, he belonged to that fateful Patuxet Indian tribe that had perished due to the plague. Tisquantum was kidnapped twice by white slave traders. The second time he was taken to Spain to be a slave, and that proved fortuitous because he missed the epidemic that wiped out his tribe in 1617. In Spain Tisquantum was sold to some Spanish Christian monks. These monks educated Tisquantum, taught him Spanish and English, as well as European customs. They also instructed him in Christianity…then they freed Tisquantum. The liberated Indian left Spain and traveled to England (where Tisquantum met  Pocahontas) and then, in 1619, returned to his native America.

But Tisquantum returned to discover his people were gone. 

His family and friends were all dead due to a killer epidemic. His entire life and culture was finished. So he joined the Wampanoag tribe. He was the one who likely taught Samoset a simple English greeting. Because once in the door, Tisquantum quickly took the lead. He did all the translation work between the Wampanoag and the pilgrims, eventually creating a treaty of friendship and peace. He lived with the pilgrims for nearly two years and proved an indispensable resource to Bradford and the colonists. Bradford said Tisquantum was “a special instrument sent of God for their good beyond their expectation.”

The pilgrims gave Tisquantum a different, shortened name: Squanto.

And he became one of the most influential Indians in American history. Like Pocahontas and, later, Sacagawea, he proved a trusted friend to the white settler.

Squanto singlehandedly equipped this struggling colony. He was their American “Moses”—leader, guide, interpreter, and advisor. Squanto introduced the settlers to the fur trade and taught them how to hunt and fish. He showed them how to grow crops in the rocky Massachusetts’s dirt, including a new crop known as “corn.” At one point, a food shortage forced Bradford to take a treacherous expedition to trade some pelts. Squanto expertly piloted the ship through dangerous waters. But that expedition was also Squanto’s last, as he contracted “Indian fever” sometime during the trip. Within days, he was dead. Bradford tenderly cared for his Indian friend to his last breath. He wrote in his journal how Squanto was a “great loss” to him and the pilgrim colonists.

The year 1621 proved a banner year for the pilgrims.

Despite the steep loss of human life in early spring, the colony rebounded—thanks to the help of Squanto and the Wampanoag tribe. They now thrived in their new world. There was an abundance of wildlife and fish in this new world, not to mention trees for building homes. The pilgrims killed so much fowl and deer, and their crops grew so well, that they had more than they needed for the coming winter.

It was time to party. It was time to thank God for His Protection and Provision.

The First Thanksgiving was a fellowship meal of gratitude.

Yes, there was gratitude towards the Indians. It why the pilgrims invited their chief Massasoit and several Indians to join their company for a good old-fashioned potluck dinner. Ninety Indians showed up for the fellowship meal. They feasted for three days on wild turkey, venison, fish, fowl, fruits, nuts and vegetables. They also dined on a new dish known simply as “corn.” A pilgrim named Edward Winslow recorded his gratitude: “And although it be not always so plentiful, as it was at this time, with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want, that we often wish you partakers of our plenty.”

Thanksgiving was about thanking God for his “goodness” and his abundant provision.

It was also gratitude for new friends, sacred community, and a liberty to live (and worship) as one desired.

It’s why those who wish to twist this Thanksgiving tale into a story of greed, theft and hate completely miss the point. The Puritans weren’t oppressors. They didn’t steal any land. In fact, every Indian tribe in the area could’ve done what these Puritans did, but they did not. Why? Because their superstitions about death kept them far away from this plot of land these pilgrims chose. They feared living in such a place would bring death upon their own tribe. So the abandoned fort was never inhabited again…until a hundred hungry European Christians desperately needed shelter one cold November day. Furthermore, later when the growing pilgrim colony needed land they purchased it (not stole it). As for slavery (of any kind), there was none in the Massachusetts colony.

Thanksgiving is a wonderful holiday with an amazing tale of survival. We should enjoy the bounty of what we’ve earned and produced. But let us never forget to be grateful for how God provided that opportunity, that job, that paycheck, that home, that food.

And out of charity and gratitude, don’t forget to invite some friends to the table.

Thanksgiving is about being grateful, hopeful…and neighborly.




  1. Don’t Know Much About History by Kenneth C. Davis (New York: Avon Books, 1990): 20.
  2. Bradford’s History “Of Plimoth Plantation” by William Bradford (Boston: Wright & Potter Printing, 1898)
  3. The Pilgrim Fathers or Colony of Plymouth from 1602 to 1625 by Alexander Young (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1841).

John Locke: How a Great Philosopher Influenced the Founding of America

By Rick Chromey | November 14, 2022 |

The Founding Fathers of the United States of America had many influences, but possibly none more than John Locke (1632-1704).

Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and John Madison revered Locke. John Quincy Adams penned, “The Declaration of Independence [was]…founded upon one and the same theory of government…expounded in the writings of Locke.”

But who was this great man of the Enlightenment?

Most historians today call John Locke a philosopher and “father of liberalism,” but those monikers are incomplete.

Locke was also a dedicated theologian…and despite those who classify him as a deist, the evidence points in a much different direction. In fact, many of Locke’s religious works occurred at the end of his life (in the 1690s) and were theologically orthodox and biblically conservative.

For example, Locke penned an expository commentary on Paul’s epistles (published post-death, 1705-1707) and compiled one of the earliest topical Bibles: “Common Place: Book to the Holy Bible. (1697)” Similar to today, Locke also lived in a culture with anti-religious “enlightenment” sentiments. To combat the attacks on Christianity he wrote an apologetic text: “The Reasonableness of Christianity as Delivered in the Scriptures (1695).” He later wrote a sequel: “Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695)” and a sequel to the sequel “A Second Vindication (1697).”

Our Founding Fathers, however, were most influenced by Locke’s earlier work “Two Treatises of Government” (1689)–a book that struggled for readership until after Locke died.

In its 400 pages, Locke outlined how civil government operates, but most people would be surprised his primary source was the Bible. Locke references biblical characters, ideas and passages over 1500 times in this influential work.

Essentially, our Founders–the majority being Christian churchmen–used the work of an English philosopher-theologian (who sourced his ideas to the Bible) to declare independence from Great Britain and frame our U.S. Constitution.

It’s why many of the unique features of our Constitution–including separation of powers, religious freedom and the consent of the people–are actually biblical ideas.

One more thought: in the early 1980s, a group of political scientists spent a decade studying over 15,000 writings from the Founding Era to determine “sources” for the establishment of American government. The top source by a wide margin was the Bible. Over 30% of the quotes in these Founders’ writings were biblical…four times more than any other individual, including John Locke.

It’s no wonder John Adams concluded: “The general principles on which the fathers achieved independence were the general principles of Christianity.”

Very few Americans, including today’s school children, learn this material in their history classes.

The History Channel and other media surprisingly overlook it. In fact, we’re largely being taught our Constitution is “godless” and the Founding Fathers were non- or irreligious types (some even contend they were agnostics and atheists). Of course these narratives are not true.

It’s why time to flip the script and tell the truth about the real influencers upon our American Founding.

And it begins with an Enlightenment Englishman and his Bible.

The Black Robe Regiment: How a Group of Patriots Founded America

By Rick Chromey | November 10, 2022 |

The Black Robe Regiment in the Revolutionary War

They were called the “Black Robe Regiment.”

A group of patriots who served in Congress, presided over influential American schools, led troops in the Revolutionary War, signed the Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights and other important founding documents.

Their names?

  • JOHN WITHERSPOON (President of Princeton)
  • JOHN P. MUHLENBERG (Revolutionary War General)
  • FREDERICK A. MUHLENBERG (1st Speaker of the House)
  • ABIEL FOSTER (New Hampshire and U.S. Congressman)
  • BENJAMIN CONTEE (Revolutionary War Officer, Congressman)
  • ABRAHAM BALDWIN (Senator, President of Univ. of Georgia)
  • PAINE WINGATE (Senator and Congressman)
  • JOSEPH MONTGOMERY (Judge, Congressman)
  • JAMES MANNING (President of Brown University)
  • JOHN J. ZUBLY (Continental Congressman)

What did the “black robe regiment” have in common?

They were all “robed” as clergymen.

It’s true. They were local church pastors and preachers, highly educated and extremely influential.

Witherspoon, Zubly, and Montgomery were Presbyterians. The Muhlenbergs were Lutherans. Contee was an Episcopalian. Manning was a Baptist. Foster was a Puritan. Baldwin and Wingate were Congregationalists.

During the Revolutionary War these clergymen united around two causes: evangelism (enlarging God’s Kingdom) and freedom (liberation from England’s heavy rule).

They were some of the smartest men in the land, bred in the best American Universities, including Yale, Harvard, and Brown.

The open and vital influence of the “black robed regiment” proves how much contemporary America has misunderstood the “separation of church and state.” Our Founding Fathers built America upon a Christian foundation that permitted all citizens the right to religious freedom, speech, press, assembly, petition, trial by jury, among others. Any “separation” was to prohibit government interference into the church, not to keep the church out of the government.

The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. once stated: “The church must be reminded that it is…the conscience of the state. It must be the guide and the critic of the state…If the church does not recapture its prophetic zeal, it will become an irrelevant social club without moral or spiritual authority.”

America was first colonized by religious “pilgrims” and their leaders seeking a place to worship freely. It’s what liberated America originally, what made America powerful historically, and will restore America’s greatness again.

America is only as great as it is good.

We cannot have civility nor liberty without virtuous people and it’s impossible to have virtuous people without religion.  Listen to the words of these Founding Fathers:

“It is religion and morality alone which can establish the principles upon which freedom can securely stand. The only foundation of a free constitution is pure virtue. (John Adams)

“Neither the wisest constitution nor the wisest laws will secure the liberty and happiness of a people whose manners are universally corrupt.” (Samuel Adams)

Our liberty depends on our education, our laws, and habits . . . it is founded on morals and religion, whose authority reigns in the heart, and on the influence all these produce on public opinion before that opinion governs rulers.” (Fisher Ames)

Only a virtuous people are capable of freedom. As nations become corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters.” (Benjamin Franklin)

To the kindly influence of Christianity we owe that degree of civil freedom, and political and social happiness which mankind now enjoys. . . . Whenever the pillars of Christianity shall be overthrown, our present republican forms of government, and all blessings which flow from them, must fall with them.” (Jedediah Morse)

No free government now exists in the world, unless where Christianity is acknowledged, and is the religion of the country.” (The Pennsylvania Supreme Court, 1824)

“The only foundation for a useful education in a republic is to be laid in religion. Without this there can be no virtue, and without virtue there can be no liberty, and liberty is the object and life of all republican governments.” (Benjamin Rush)

The most perfect maxims and examples for regulating your social conduct and domestic economy, as well as the best rules of morality and religion, are to be found in the Bible. . . . The moral principles and precepts found in the scriptures ought to form the basis of all our civil constitutions and laws. These principles and precepts have truth, immutable truth, for their foundation. . . . All the evils which men suffer from vice, crime, ambition, injustice, oppression, slavery and war, proceed from their despising or neglecting the precepts contained in the Bible. . . . For instruction then in social, religious and civil duties resort to the scriptures for the best precepts. (Noah Webster)

Essentially, our Founders believed it was impossible to have a civilized republic without virtue…and impossible to have virtue without religion…and no religion exceeded Christianity, in the history of the world, in creating a better people.





1.  John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Little, Brown, 1854), Vol. IX, p. 401, to Zabdiel Adams on June 21, 1776.

2. William V. Wells, The Life and Public Service of Samuel Adams (Boston: Little, Brown, & Co., 1865), Vol. I, p. 22, quoting from a political essay by Samuel Adams published in The Public Advertiser, 1749.

3. Fisher Ames, An Oration on the Sublime Virtues of General George Washington (Boston: Young & Minns, 1800), p. 23.).

4. Benjamin Franklin, The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, Jared Sparks, editor (Boston: Tappan, Whittemore and Mason, 1840), Vol. X, p. 297, April 17, 1787.

5. Jedidiah Morse, A Sermon, Exhibiting the Present Dangers and Consequent Duties of the Citizens of the United States of America (Hartford: Hudson and Goodwin, 1799), p. 9.

6. Pennsylvania Supreme Court, 1824. Updegraph v. Commonwealth; 11 Serg. & R. 393, 406 (Sup.Ct. Penn. 1824).

7. Benjamin Rush, Essays, Literary, Moral and Philosophical (Philadelphia: Thomas and William Bradford, 1806), p. 8.

8. Noah Webster, History of the United States, “Advice to the Young” (New Haven: Durrie & Peck, 1832), pp. 338-340, par. 51, 53, 56.

Rev. Timothy Dwight: How the President of Yale Indicted the French Revolution

By Rick Chromey | October 28, 2022 |

On July 4, 1798, TIMOTHY DWIGHT, the President of Yale College gave an address titled “The Duty of Americans at the Present Crisis.”

It was a stinging indictment upon the French Revolution and their enlightened, secular culture.

Dwight particularly noted how the infidel Voltaire had orchestrated the plan to convert Christian France into a secular state. By the time of Dwight, France had devolved into a cultural sewer, culminating with a “Reign of Terror” that slaughtered over 340,000 people. That’s the legacy of secularism, Dwight preached.

Not surprisingly, Voltaire’s progressive plan to eradicate Christianity in France sounds rather familiar, especially to Americans over 50 years of age, who’ve watched it unfold in the United States:



In writing, art and music render Christianity “absurd and ridiculous.” Mock religion, morality and virtue. Music, in particular, can move a society. Use it to introduce new philosophy and theology. Create a new cultural tolerance to the profane.


Using political and judicial means, erode the religious foundation of the State (in the case of 18th century France, it was Roman Catholicism). Use progressive and liberal theology to serve your secular narrative until these entities are no longer needed, then remove them too.


Establish a new generation of “philosophists” (professors) to inculcate the emerging generations with secular, irreligious, anti-Christian ideas. Weaponize science, literature and history against the Bible and Christianity. The process begins in the university and moves to the local schools.


When these indoctrinated generations come of age, move them into political, social and ecclesiastical “awareness” against older generations. They are the only ones “right.” They dictate what’s “correct.” Devolve society into an “honor/shame” culture. Either follow the “narrative” and be accepted, honored and celebrated, or be shamed, protested and eliminated. Make everything about FEAR.


Create further doubt, contempt and division through books (the media of Voltaire’s day). Overwhelm the masses with THE (DESIRED) NARRATIVE. Emphasize feelings over facts. Shut down any opposing view. Never let a good crisis go to waste. Again, make everything about FEAR to control.


Voltaire created a “secret Academy” that doctored books, even forged them after an author’s death, to further his SECULAR NARRATIVE. He focused particularly on revising and erasing history. These books were then widely circulated at low price.


It’s why, as the Yale President Timothy Dwight pointed out, FRENCH CULTURE WAS IN CHAOS.

Terror reigned. Falsehood ruled. Immorality prevailed. Religion was segregated, even silenced. Murder. Violence. Theft. Greed. Infidelity. Sexual perversion. Profanity. Atheism.

This was Voltaire’s wish. This was France’s fruit.

Dwight concluded with this warning to AMERICANS as they celebrated and feasted upon their July 4 independence in 1798:

“RELIGION and LIBERTY are the meat and the drink of the body politic. Withdraw one of them and it languishes, consumes, and dies. If INDIFFERENCE…becomes the prevailing character of a people…their motives to vigorous defense is lost, and the hopes of their enemies are proportionally increased …Without religion we may possibly retain the freedom of savages, bears, and wolves, but not the freedom of New England. If our RELIGION WERE GONE, our state of society would PERISH with it and nothing would be left which would be worth defending.”

Words, indeed, worth noting…and pondering in our day.




“The Duty of Americans, at the Present Crisis, Illustrated in a Discourse, Preached on the Fourth of July 1798” by the Reverend Timothy Dwight, D.D., President of Yale College (New Haven: Thomas and Samuel Green Printers, 1798)